Development of Science and Technology
development of knowledge-which is nerabah keman
Developments in science and technology feels faster, especially as a result of technological development in the field of electronics and information technology industry, where product life cycle (product life cycle) getting shortened. Besides, the development of technology in the field are characterized by large capacity, increasing speed and miniaturization of power influence the broad scope of its application so as to provide a very broad impact on the development of other industries in the sub-sector as a whole as well as our lives. Therefore industrialized countries in the world trying to take control and develop technology to enhance research and development (research & development) in manufacturing technology (manufacturing technology) and technology products (product technology). In general, industrialized countries to take this step in order to improve the competitiveness of their products or at least to maintain the competitiveness of its products in / entering the international market. (Pushed technology – production). On the other hand, developing countries now increasingly aware of the importance of science and technology as part of their national development, so that developing countries raced each other in improving their ability to master and develop science and technology. Their efforts now more emphasis placed on increasing competitiveness in order to open access to international markets. In line with increasingly tight competition between industries through the development of these technologies has shifted the economic system the world was moving towards the establishment of a global economy. As we know that the implementation of the system of globalization will be realized through the establishment of a single market either in North American, European and Asia-Pacific. The implementation of the single market system is on the one hand increases the volume of demand and lead to the expansion of the market, but on the other hand also demands increasingly fierce competition among manufacturers to enter the market. In other words that only a competitive product that might enter the market to gain market share. The globalization of the economic system will inevitably have an impact apart from the development of science and technology advanced rapidly and earlier. Thus, to produce a competitive product in terms of price, quality and time of delivery are more popularly known as the “Quality, Cost and Delivery Time (QCD)” would require the support of the activities and research and development facilities are tough too. As a result, the cost of research and development of more and more expensive anyway. Therefore, efforts to increase research and development activities as part of an effort to increase capacity in the mastery of science and technology in general and the increasing competitiveness in particular has led to the establishment of centers of technological excellence (Center of Exellence). These circumstances stimulate major companies in the world to take a stand to face a new scenario in the trading and marketing. Amalgamation (merger) and purchase (acquisition) between the company continues to be able to reach full capacity and that as a company can have “sufficient mass / critical mass” that will be rolling your own. Critical mass to be achieved include market size as well as a comprehensive product and technology. Similarly, other cooperation in the form of strategic alliances (strategic alliance) continues to expand on the products and sophisticated technologies such as aircraft, motor vehicles, semi conductor and others, which basically requires both funds and huge technological capabilities that can not be borne only by one company or can not be supported by one country alone. Symptoms or economic trends toward global system is apparently an impact behind the technology development activities, since the system is inevitably going to demand similar product rationalization.
examples of the three main areas of research and development activities, namely:
Electronics technology for “Office Automation Industry”;
- Technology Biotechnology, and – Materials Technology
- Materials Technology